One way to improve the fishing in your farm pond is to add structure, also known as fish attractors. Structure provides cover and feeding areas for fish.
"Fish instinctively like to associate with something for protection," said Kerry Prather, central fisheries district biologist for the Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources. "These things naturally occur - fallen trees, rocks, dirt banks to some extent, a cavity - something they can hide in or around."
You can help nature along by adding additional structure to your farm pond. If you are in the process of building a pond, leave some trees, stumps or rock piles to create natural hiding places for fish. For existing ponds, structure can be added using natural or artificial objects.
"You can emulate storm damage with fallen trees placed in the pond, as if the tree were growing on the bank and fell in," said Prather. He recommends angling the trees instead of pointing them directly out to the deep part of the pond. Deeper areas receive less oxygen in the summer and aren't the most effective places to add structure. Instead, place trees from the water line out to a depth of about 6 feet. Use larger trees or small trees bundled together into brush piles.
"Hardwood is best, because it lasts longer and has more surface area," said Prather. "Cedar is okay if it's all you have, but it takes a lot more of them to make a brush pile."
Logs, concrete, tile and even artificial reefs create good structure. "We recommend people avoid the use of tires, because they leech and break down," said Prather. "Plus, they don't have as much surface area."
Anchor trees and brush piles by tying concrete blocks or other heavy objects to them. If possible, place structure where you can see the tops of the objects so you will know their location. You may notice algae and other aquatic plants growing on the fish attractors. This is beneficial to fish.
"Invertebrates and algae will live and grow on fish attractors," said Prather. "The longer the algae grows, the more attractive it is to invertebrates. This is good for small fish. Too many people like to keep their ponds clean. Natural vegetation provides great fish cover."
Structure also provides anglers with good places to fish. "It concentrates the fish for the angler," said Prather. "It attracts bigger fish to feed on smaller fish hiding in the fish attractors."